Problèmes généraux de l’utilisation des sous-produits agro-industriels en alimentation animale dans la région méditerranéenne. J. Sci. Res., 15, 9–16, 0.25-0.5 kg/d for animals up to 200 kg LW, In some countries the juice is extracted in a simple animal or mechanically driven press, then boiled in open vats. All rights reserved. Sci., 14 (5): 646-650, Chopping, G. D. ; Deans, H. D. ; Sibbick, R. ; Thurbon, P. N. ; Stokoe, J., 1976. Manufacturers repeat this process several times, and each time, a different type of molasses is produced. The Everglades of south Florida are a major producer of sugar cane with 425,000 acres grown annually that yields 90 million gall… Sci., 25 (1-2): 151-161, Figueroa, V. ; Ly, J., 1990. Molasses can depress performance in comparison to isoenergetic grain-based concentrates, and reduction in milk yield or milk fat yield has been observed in cows fed 15 to 22% (diet DM) molasses (Granzin et al., 2005). It is a byproduct of the sugar-making process, and it comes from crushed sugar cane or sugar beets. Anim. Cuban J. Agric. A note on the use of high-test molasses for fattening geese. Abstract: Molasses is a sticky dark by-product of processing sugar cane or sugar beets into sugar. Studies on feeding grainless ration to Landrace sows. Urea has to account for 2.5% of the fresh weight of molasses to provide the ratio of fermentable nitrogen to carbohydrates required for the efficient growth of rumen micro-organisms. From a nutritional point of view, it is primarily a source of energy, due to its high sugar content (60-70% DM). Cuniculture, 8 (5): 240-244, Lebas, F.; Renouf, B., 2009. Edited by Harinder P.S. An economical remedy is to provide adequate quantity of high protein content roughage (such as leucaena or gliricidia) (Preston, 1986). Molasses can be added to grass silage at about 5% (Fuller, 2004). It is usually mixed to the feed, but it may be sprayed on low quality roughage to improve its palatability and increase intake (Leclerc, 2003). J. Taiwan Livest. A daily intake of 2.5 mg of supplemental Se from sodium selenite or selenite yeast sources would be needed for cattle consuming sugarcane molasses (Arthington, 2008). Nutrition and feeding of organic pigs. This utilization is common for ruminants, but also occurs in pigs and poultry. Learn about MamSezz and the pros and cons…, Riding a stationary exercise bike can be an effective workout to boost cardiovascular health and reduce body fat. It has been postulated that the problem could be one of insufficient glucose precursors related to the digestion of the molasses, particularly since the demand for this nutrient is greater in milk than in beef (Pérez, 1995). Total substitution of corn by high-test sugarcane molasses in broilers. Molasses definition: Molasses is a thick, dark brown syrup which is produced when sugar is processed. The Molasses Act of 1733 was an Act of the Parliament of Great Britain (citation 6 Geo II. Higher amounts of molasses (above 20%) in the diet can be detrimental to animal response, particularly in the lactating dairy cow. For example it was used in 93 out of 95 French commercial feeds studied by Lebas et al., 1984. Other sugarcane products include molasses, rum, and cachaça (a Brazilian alcohol), and the plant itself can be used as thatch and as livestock fodder. It should be noted that the type of molasses is rarely mentioned when molasses is traded or when its feed value is investigated. When fed alone to cattle or mixed with only 3% urea, the palatability of molasses was not affected and therefore it should be restricted to 2-3 kg/d. 11, Mederos, C. M. ; Figueroa, V. ; Ly, J. ; Garcia, A., 1990. Bottom line: Molasses is usually safe, but consume it in moderation. Assessment of molasse-urea blocks for goats and sheep production in the Sultanate of Oman: intake and growth studies. Curtin, L. V., 1973. Molasses can also be a key ingredient for cost effective management of feeds and pastures. For example fresh fish, fish offal and snails can be preserved by mixing 50:50 with final molasses, then fed with B molasses to pigs, ducks and geese (Pérez, 1995). The main use of cane molasses is as a binding agent in feed mills. Effect of replacing grain with deoiled rice bran and molasses from the diet of lactating cows. Cuban J. Agric. Sugarcane (Saccharum). Sci., 11: 77-80, Amici, A.; Finzi, A., 1995. In: Tropical Feeds and Feeding Systems, First FAO Electronic Conference (1995), Pérez, R., 1997. For instance, an early study in Australia with Friesian and Jersey cows, grazing irrigated and N-fertilized pangola grass (Digitaria eriantha), found that supplementation with molasses/urea raised milk yield by an average of 0.67 kg milk/kg molasses with Friesians, and 0.39 kg milk/kg molasses with Jerseys. Competition between the faster-growing amylolytic bacteria in the rumen and cellulolytic micro-organisms results in a decrease in the number of cellulolytic micro-organisms present, leading to a reduction in fibre digestion. Cuban J. Agric. That said, molasses has a similar glycemic index rating to refined sugar. Adding urea to molasses is a common method to improve its nitrogen status (Preston, 1986). A number of trials have shown that molasses-based liquid supplements containing urea tend to be inferior to supplements providing natural protein. Unconventional feeding technologies for rabbits in developing countries. Molasses urea blocks as supplements for rabbits. It was possible to feed six-week-old goslings for 8 weeks with a diet containing 62% molasses (instead of 77% maize grain) but weight gain and feed efficiency were higher for the maize-based diet (Valdivie et al., 1974). Rumen parakeratosis may also occur in animals fed high levels of molasses (Pate, 1983). Although researchers have not studied the effects of molasses on the heart in humans, studies in animals indicate that supplementing the diet with molasses can help increase levels of high-density lipoprotein (HDL), or “good,” cholesterol (8). Initial studies on the production and use of molasses blocks in the feeding of forage fed rabbits. molasses = treacle Pronunciation: muh-LASS-sis Equivalents: One cup = 8 ounces Notes: Sugar is made by extracting juice from sugar cane or sugar beets, boiling them, and then extracting the sugar crystals. Net energy of fat and molasses for beef heifers with observations on the method for net energy determination. In this rudimentary process, pan (uncrystallized) sugar is produced and the by-product molasses is called ". Molasses. Soc. The best way to get these nutrients is by eating whole foods. Cane molasses is also high in sodium, potassium and magnesium, and contains significant quantities of copper, zinc, iron and manganese. This has been attributed to modifications in the production of volatile fatty acids in the rumen, resulting in reduced fibre digestion and lower forage intake (Granzin et al., 2005). B. ; Bobadilla, M. ; Fernandez, A. ; Encarnacion, J. C. ; Preston, T. R., 1977. Intake and digestibility of nutritional blocks for rabbits, composed by three forage plants from semiarid habitats as compared to Neonotonia wightii. This syrup is produced by the third boiling. No. Sugarcane molasses. Studies also show that these antioxidants can help protect cells from the oxidative stress associated with cancer and other diseases (11). The sulfur content of molasses is high and may antagonize liver tissue accumulation of Se in cattle. We include products we think are useful for our readers. The average daily gain ranges between 0.8 and 1 kg/d. Journées Rech. Sci., 24: 71-77, Mee, J. M. L. ; Brooks, C. C. ; Stanley, R. W., 1979. Asian-Aust. Pérez, 1995 has described the different molasses as follows: Sugarcane molasses is also used for alcohol production (rhum or fuel ethanol) and the distillery process yields vinasses that can also be used in animal feeding. Technol., 3: 15-22, Lebas, F. ; Tinel, B. ; Loupiac, B., 1984. This article takes a close look at molasses, including its types, uses, nutrition, and benefits. Avic., 24 (1): 37-40, Mudunuru, U. ; Lukefahr, S. D. ; Nelson, S. D. ; Flores, D. O., 2008. How to make molasses from sugarcane. Aust. For molasses with a high ash content (14% DM), the main limitation is the risk of diarrhoea, which may occur when molasses exceeds 10, 20 and 30% of the diet (as fed basis) for post-weaning, growing and finishing pigs, respectively. Molasses is a good source of iron, selenium, and copper, all of which help maintain healthy bones (5). Molasses provides readily fermentescible energy that promotes lactic acid bacteria development, subsequently reduces pH and improves silage quality. Proximate chemical analysis of final cane molasses and effect of feeding 30% molasses on intestinal sucrase and maltase activities in the rat. J. Sauvant, D., Perez J. M., Tran, G.), p. 301, INRA-AFZ, Paris, Nouel, G. ; Espejo, M. ; Sanchez, R. ; Hevia, P. ; Alvarado, H. ; Brea, A. ; Romero, Y. ; Mejias, G., 2003. Molasses seems to cause brain damage when fed at high levels and with low roughage inclusion. The net energy of blackstrap molasses for fattening steers as determined by a comparative slaughter technique. For instance, in temperate areas, 10% molasses is recommended for animals fed energy-rich diets, but it is possible to include up to 15% if the diet contains straw or hay. (Trinidad), 53: 151-156, Valdivie, M. ; Perez, R., 1974. Sudan J. Vet. Feeding of livestock in Uganda. Cuban J. Agric. Washington, D.C., National Academy of Sciences, 491 p. Diaz, C. P. ; Gonzalez, E.;Rodriguez, Y., 2002. The distillate, a clear liquid, is usually aged in oak barrels. Sci., 24 (2): 480-487, Ly, J., 1989. Penambul Books: Armidale, N.S.W. They then boil down the juice to form sugar crystals. Monensin supplementation of lactating cows fed tropical grasses and cane molasses or grain. Molasses is the dark, sweet, syrupy byproduct made during the extraction of sugars from sugarcane and sugar beets. In: Molasses in animal nutrition, National Feed Ingredients Association, West Des Moines, Iowa, Perez, R. ; Preston, T. R., 1970. It can also be mixed with rice bran, oil meals or with non-protein nitrogen (urea) in order to enhance rumen activity (Chaudhary et al., 2001; Bedingar et al., 1990; Rana et al., 1982). Blackstrap molasses is also the most concentrated form, and it contains the most vitamins and minerals. People should not rely on molasses as source for these nutrients. Effect of partial replacement of wheat by rice polish and molasses on the performance of laying pullets. Variable animal responses have been observed at these levels, depending on the relative proportions of the other diet ingredients (forage:concentrate ratio, starch content, etc.). Figueroa, V. ; Maylin, A. ; Ly, J. ; Perez, M., 1990. Molasses included at 39 and 42% in the starter and finishing rations significantly decreased feed intake, increased live weight gain, feed efficiency and the dressed carcass percentage (Rahim et al., 1999). The glycemic index measures how quickly specific foods raise blood sugar levels. Rural Dev., 3 (2): 13-16, Doan Thi Gang; Khuc Thi Hue; Dinh Van Binh; Nguyen Thi Mui, 2006. The asterisk * indicates that the average value was obtained by an equation. translation and definition "molasses", English-Tagalog Dictionary online. or included in the diet. In the papers presented at the 9th World Rabbit Congress in 2008, sugarcane molasses was included in 15 of the 58 control diets with an average inclusion rate of 2.8% and a maximum of 5% (Lebas et al., 2009). A thick brownish syrup produced in the refining of raw sugar.. molasses synonyms: long sweetening, treacle. One tablespoon — 20 grams (g) — of molasses contains the following amounts of your daily values of each nutrient: One tablespoon also contains about 58 calories, all of which come from carbs — mostly sugar. B. ; Brown, W. F. ; Martin, F. G. ; Bates, D. B., 2001. If you buy through links on this page, we may earn a small commission. Brahman Breeders' Association Limited, Brahman News, N°159, Balestra, G. F. ; Amici, A. ; Machin, D., 1992. In Nigeria, broilers fed 15% molasses in the diet performed better (growth, final weight, nutrient digestibility) than animals fed lower amounts or no molasses (Njidda et al., 2006). Manufacturers can also make molasses from sorghum, pomegranates, carob, and dates. However, just because it's common doesn't mean it's bad. Molasses is a sweetener. Cuban J. Agric. This article treats the cultivation of the sugarcane plant. Molasses contains more nutrients than refined sugar. Technol., 13 (1-2): 83-91, Thomas, M.; Rijm, W.; van der Poel, A. F. B., 2001. In this case, the molasses/milk system does not perform adequately. The non-sugar fraction also contains soluble gums, organic acids (citric, malic) and unidentified compounds originating from different chemicals (electrolytes, formaldehyde, sulphur dioxide, hypochlorites, sodium bisulphite and also tensio-active compounds) added during the process of sugar extraction (Leclerc, 2003; Ly, 1989). Etymology. Lower inclusion rates (less than 25% DM) generally seem preferable, for both practical and economic reasons (Göhl, 1982; Rosenberg, 1955). However, researchers have linked the nutrients in the syrup to several health benefits. sugar cane definition: 1. a tropical plant from whose tall thick stems sugar can be produced 2. a tropical plant from…. The Agricultural Marketing Service of the United States Department of Agriculture sets specifications for molasses grades. Uganda Protectorate. While molasses can be a good alternative to refined sugar, consuming too much of any added sugar can have adverse effects. Effect of the utilization of torula yeast and final sugarcane molasses on the behavior of replacement pullets. University of Florida, IFAS, Circular S-365, Pate, F. M., 1983. University Puerto Rico, 60:631-634, Steg, A. ; Van Der Meer, J. M., 1985. Proceedings of an FAO Expert Consultation held in Santo Domingo, Dominican Republic from 7–11 July 1986, Rahim, A. G. A. ; Eiman, A. T. E. ; El-Bagir, N. M. ; Haseeba, S. A., 1999. Urea and salt are first dissolved in water before being mixed with the molasses; this mix is top-dressed, once daily, generally with 70 g of bypass-protein (fish meal) per 100 kg LW. Sugarhouse molasses definition is - thin molasses remaining after refining of sugarcane. Diet., 20: 202-206, Göhl, B., 1982. Egyptian Poult. The ME content of sugarcane molasses is about 12.5-13.5 MJ/kg DM (Noblet et al., 2002; Figueroa et al., 1990b; Rostagno et al., 2005), which represents 78-84% of the ME of maize expressed on a DM basis but only 66-74% of that value when expressed on a fresh matter basis. Molasses blocks as supplementary feed for growing rabbits. MNT is the registered trade mark of Healthline Media. Livest. People with diabetes may benefit from using a low-calorie sweetener, such as stevia or erythritol. Agric. Milk production from irrigated nitrogen fertilized pangola grass. From the Cambridge English Corpus Another group of seven goats received only the mixture of molasses and oat grains as a placebo. It is the thickest and darkest type of molasses, and it tends to have a bitter taste. Also, molasses can cause digestive problems. 6th World Rabbit Congress, Toulouse, France, 3: 341-345, Forsberg, N. E. ; Al-Maqbaly, R. ; Al-Halhali, A. ; Ritchie, A. ; Srikandakumar, A., 2002. Feed efficiency decreased at 30% but was still higher than for the control diet (Sharma et al., 1973). Rum is a liquor made by fermenting then distilling sugarcane molasses or sugarcane juice. Molasses as animal feed: an overview. Several trials have investigated the concept of introducing a high proportion of molasses, from 25 to 50%, in non-pelleted feeds fed to rabbits, in the form of blocks of 0.5-1 kg, mixed with 3 to 10% of cement or lime (Dinh Van Binh et al., 1991; Balestra et al., 1992; Amici et al., 1995; Linga et al., 2000; Doan Thi Gang et al., 2006; Mudunuru et al., 2008). Sugarcane molasses is the major food molasses. The effects may be particularly harmful to people with diabetes. However, molasses may not be helpful when silage is made with maize, sorghum or cool-season grasses since they already contain high amounts of energy, and adding molasses might result in detrimental yeast development (Adesogan et al., 2010; Sansoucy, 1991). In Cuba, several trials have shown that completely replacing maize with high-test molasses in broiler diets between 18 and 42 days maintained or improved performance (meat yield, organoleptic properties) while increasing cost-effectiveness (Hidalgo et al., 2005; Valdivie et al., 2004). The study was carried out by process of parameter optimization. https://www.feedipedia.org/node/561 Last updated on October 9, 2015, 10:54, Feedipedia - Animal Feed Resources Information System - INRAE CIRAD AFZ and FAO © 2012-2020 | Copyright | Disclaimer | Editor login, Tables of chemical composition and nutritional value, English correction by Tim Smith (Animal Science consultant) and Hélène Thiollet (AFZ), Adesogan, A. T. ; Newman, Y. C., 2010. pulot [ pulót ] The economy is largely based on sugarcane and its products, such as molasses and rum, as well as on tourism. Final molasses or raw sugar for the feeding of fattening pigs. A residue begotten from sugar cane processing, molasses is the mother liquor left after crystallization of sugarcane juice. For information on the processing of cane sugar and the history of its use, see sugar. Molasses is a thick syrup that people use as a sweetener. Effects of feeding different levels of sugar cane molasses to broiler chicks: feed intake, body weight gain, efficiency of feed utilization and dressing percentage. 2 : a syrup made from boiling down sweet vegetable or fruit juice citrus molasses Examples of molasses in a Sentence Recent Examples on the Web Bake some holiday cookies; try our recipes from L.A. chefs, for everything from giant ginger molasses cookies to vegan chocolate-chip tahini cookies. Raw materials utilization and feeding techniques: new contributions in the 9th World Rabbit Congress. Response of chicks to graded concentrations of cane final molasses. Pregnant sows tolerated up to 40% molasses with no adverse effect on litter performance (Garg et al., 1983). Blackstrap molasses actually has some nutrients in it such as potassium and Vitamin B6. Sugarcane molasses is a viscous, dark and sugar-rich by-product of sugar extraction from the sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum L.). J. Anim. As stated above, with the bull study 30% molasses depressed growth (Huque et al., 1995). FAO Animal Production and Health Paper 72. Potassium excess due to molasses can result in nephritis and diarrhoea (Leclerc, 2003). The main producers were Brazil, India, China, Thailand, the United States, Pakistan, Mexico, Indonesia, Australia and the Russian Federation. Its name originates from the Latin word ‘melaceres’ meaning ‘honey-like’ as it is extremely viscous. Read on to learn more about the different types of protein powder and which ones may be most suitable to…, Many people drink alcohol but want to keep their caloric intakes in check. Effect of substituting maize with graded levels of cane molasses on the performance of broiler finisher birds in the semi-arid region of Nigeria. Cuban J. Agric. 1, Brooks, C. C. ; Iwanaga, I. I., 1967. Feed values and feeding potential of major agro-byproducts. Molasses rations for beef cattle. One study found that eating it alongside foods that contain carbs resulted in lower blood sugar and insulin levels than simply eating the foods on their own (9). For this reason, some sources say that it has the most health benefits. Molasses is a valuable additive for silage making when ensiling conditions are difficult, or when the forage is a poor quality grass (warm-season grass) or a legume. Molasses is safe for most people, if they consume it in moderation. Sci., 8 (4): 337-342, Kalmbacher, R. S. ; Brown, W. F. ; Pate, F. M., 1995. Poult. Makkar. Pangunahin nang nakasalalay ang ekonomiya sa tubó at sa mga produkto nito, gaya ng pulót at rum, pati na sa turismo. Anim. Molasses composition highly varies and depends on cane varieties, climate and processes. Feeding of alfalfa hay with molasses blocks or crumbles to growing rabbit fryers. Sci., 52: 226-230, Reddy, J. S. ; Yadav, K. R. ; Mandal, A. J. Anim. Sci., 20 (1-2): 113-117, Rana, V. K. ; Lengar, P. N., 1982. No toxicity is observed up to 3% urea in the fresh molasses (Preston, 1986), but 8-10% results in a decrease in feed intake. Molasses in beef nutrition. Molasses usually fed to animals is a liquid viscous product containing 70-75% DM. Molasses-based feeds and their use as supplements for brood cows. Here’s our process. In order to make molasses, the cane of a sugar plant is harvested and stripped of its leaves. Some countries, such as Cuba, have developed feeding systems where molasses has a central part. Alimentacion porcina no-convencional. Early research showed that sugarcane molasses could be used up to more than 30% in broiler diets. Health Prod., 34 (3): 231-239, Fuller, M. F., 2004. Anim. What are some of the best protein powders? In India, molasses was added in broiler mash at up to 10% (replacing maize grain) without affecting performance, but adding molasses directly in the drinking water (2-3% v/v) depressed body weight (Reddy et al., 1998). Cuban J. Agric. The main users were the United States (1.9 million t), China (1.8 million t), Brazil (1.3 million t), Indonesia, Argentina, India, Mexico, Vietnam, Australia and Iran (FAO, 2011). High-test molasses had a limited laxative effect (Castro et al., 1990; Figueroa et al., 1990a; Mederos et al., 1990; Gonzalez et al., 1993; Diaz et al., 2002). Molasses is free of fat and fibre with a low nitrogen content. Rev. Molasses, sugarcane molasses, A molasses, B molasses, C molasses, syrup-off, integral molasses, unclarified molasses, high-test molasses [English]; mélasse, mélasse de canne [French]; melaza, miel de caña [Spanish]; melaço [Portuguese]; molase [Indonesian]; pulot, pulut, pulut-tubo [Tagalog]; melas [Turkish]; rỉ đường; rỉ mật, mật rỉ, mật rỉ đường [Vietnamese]; دبس السكر [Arabic]; 糖蜜 [Chinese]; शीरा [Hindi]; 糖蜜 [Japanese]; काकवी [Marathi]; меласса [Russian]; กากน้ำตาล [Thai]; راب [Urdu]. Effect of molasses supplementation of a roughage based diet on growth performances of cattle. Preston, T. R. ; Leng, R. A., 1987. Indian J. Poult. 9th World Rabbit Congress – June 10-13, 2008 – Verona – Italy: 711-715, Le Dividich, J. ; Sève, B. ; Kempf, H., 1974. 11. Raw sugar doesn't mean an unrefined, unprocessed, or "in its natural state" sweetener. Some sources claim that it is more healthful than sugar. How is it made? CAB Books, CABI, Bredon, R. M., 1957. Sci., 34 (1): 133-140, Rostagno, H. S. ; Teixeira, A. ; Donzele, J. L. ; Gomes, P. C. ; De Oliveira, R. F. M. ; Lopes, D. C. ; Ferreira, A. J. P. ; Toledo Barreto, S. L., 2005. When used as an energy feed, for example to replace grain, moderate amounts of molasses are usually recommended (10-20% of the diet DM). Sci., 17 (1): 83-92, Sharma, V. V. ; Paliwal, P. C., 1973. Effect of the increasing substitution of maize by high-test molasses on the energy and nitrogen balance of growing pigs. Avg: average or predicted value; SD: standard deviation; Min: minimum value; Max: maximum value; Nb: number of values (samples) used. Effect of Guinea grass on feed intake, digestibility and growth performance of rabbits fed a molasses block and either water spinach (, Dunlop, R. H. ; Bueno, L., 1979. Molasses comes in several varieties (unsulphured, sulphured, and blackstrap) that are determined by the sugarcane's age, the amount of sugar that's extracted, and the method of extraction. Learn more about Balance by BistroMD here. Rumen turnover increases, possibly due to higher intakes caused by better palatability. As molasses is deficient in phosphorus, it is necessary to add phosphoric acid to the mixture or provide livestock with mineral supplementation (Pérez, 1995). Molasses supplementation generally increased lactation length and the percentage of non-fat solids in the milk (Chopping et al., 1976). In: NRC, 1973. Molasses is a decent source of potassium, which promotes healthy blood pressure and helps maintain heart health (7). If used as a carrier for higher concentrations of urea, the bitterness of the urea serves as an auto-regulator causing the cattle to consume about 1 kg/d (Pérez, 1995). Sugarcane molasses has several important roles in livestock feeding, due to the nutritive, appetizing and physical properties of its sugar content. Even though molasses is very palatable to pigs, high inclusion rates are not recommended. To prevent urea toxicity, the equivalent crude protein from non-protein nitrogen in a molasses-based feed should not exceed 15% of total crude protein, unless it is a formula that limits intake (Pate et al., 1989). In: Sugarcane as feed. Sci., 79 (5): 1313-1321, Sanchez, M. ; Preston, T. R., 1980. J. Anim. For example in a study carried out in Benin, the incorporation of molasses at 5% in the diet of young growing rabbits did not improve average daily gain, feed conversion ratio, feed intake and mortality rate (Kpodékon et al., 2008). Rome, Italy. molasses . Advances In Equine Nutrition II, 1998 - 2000, Kentucky Equine research, Castro, M. ; Diaz, J. ; Lezcano, P. ; Elias, A.;Iglesias, M., 1990. Caution must be taken when the spring rains begin because if the molasses is diluted it will rapidly ferment into alcohol and may fatally poison the cattle (Pérez, 1995). With a great taste and plenty of iron and calcium, it's superior to table sugar and most sweeteners in just about every way. However, high levels of molasses tend to cause sticky droppings and caked litter (Rosenberg, 1955). In the tropics, molasses is also used in combination with other ingredients, such as roughages, poultry litter or animal by-products. World Rabbit Science, 3 (2): 69-73, Arthington, J. D., 2008. Res. Molasses varies by amount of sugar, method of extraction, and age of plant.